Tuesday, August 7, 2012

Diaspora Literature - A Testimony of Realism

Do you know about - Diaspora Literature - A Testimony of Realism

Diaspora Literature involves an idea of a homeland, a place from where the displacement occurs and narratives of harsh journeys undertaken on inventory of economic compulsions. Basically Diaspora is a minority community living in exile. The Oxford English Dictionary 1989 Edition (second) traces the etymology of the word 'Diaspora' back to its Greek root and to its appearance in the Old Testament (Deut: 28:25) as such it references. God's intentions for the habitancy of Israel to be dispersed over the world. The Oxford English Dictionary here commences with the Judic History, mentioning only two types of dispersal: The "Jews living dispersed among the gentiles after the captivity" and The Jewish Christians residing face the Palestine. The dispersal (initially) signifies the location of a fluid human autonomous space lively a complicated set of negotiation and transfer between the nostalgia and desire for the Homeland and the production of a new home, adapting to the power, relationships between the minority and majority, being spokes persons for minority possession and their habitancy back home and significantly transacting the contact Zone - a space changed with the possibility of multiple challenges.

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People migrating to an additional one country in exile home

Living peacefully immaterially but losing home

Birth of Diaspora Literature

However, the 1993 Edition of Shorter Oxford's definition of Diaspora can be found. While still insisting on capitalization of the first letter, 'Diaspora' now also refers to 'anybody of habitancy living face their original homeland.

In the tradition of indo-Christian the fall of Satan from the heaven and humankind's separation from the garden of Eden, metaphorically the separation from God constitute diasporic situations. Etymologically, 'Diaspora' with its connotative political weight is drawn from Greek meaning to disperse and signifies a voluntary or forcible movement of the habitancy from the homeland into new regions." (Pp.68-69)

Under Colonialism, 'Diaspora' is a multifarious movement which involves-

oThe temporary of permanent movement of Europeans all over the world, important to Colonial settlement. Consequen's, consequently the ensuing economic exploitation of the placed areas necessitated large whole of labor that could not be fulfilled by local populace. This leads to:
oThe Diaspora resulting from the enslavement of Africans and their relocation to places like the British colonies. After slavery was out lawed the prolonged interrogate for workers created indenturement labor. This produces:
oLarge bodies of the habitancy from poor areas of India, China and other to the West Indies, Malaya Fiji. Eastern and Southern Africa, etc. (see-http://www.postcolonialweb.com)

William Sarfan points out that the term Diaspora can be applied to expatriate minority communities whose members share some of the tasteless characteristics given hereunder:

1.They or their ancestor have been dispersed from a special original 'centre' or two or more 'peripheral' of foreign regions;
2.They sustain a social memory, vision or myth about their original homeland-its corporal location, history and achievements;
3.They believe they are not- and perhaps cannot be- fully accepted by their lost community and therefore feel partly alienated and insulted from it;
4.They regard their ancestral homeland as their, true, ideal home and as the place to which they or their descendents would (or should) eventually return- when conditions are appropriate;
5.They believe they should collectively, be committed to the maintenance or recovery of their homeland and its protection and prosperity; and
6.They continue to relate, personally and vicariously, to that homeland in one way or another, and their ethno- social consciousness and solidarity are importantly defined by the existence of such a relationship ;( Safren Willam cited in Satendra Nandan: 'Diasporic Consciousness' Interrogative Post-Colonial: Column Theory, Text and Context, Editors: Harish Trivedi and Meenakshi Mukherjee; Indian create of advanced Studies 1996, p.53)

There lies a mystery in arrival to terms with diaspora, and as such it introduces conceptual categories to display the range of meanings the word invokes. Robin Cohen classifies Diaspora as:

1. Victim Diasporas
2. Labour Diasporas
3. Imperial Diasporas
4. Trade Diasporas
5. Homeland Diasporas
6. Cultural Diasporas

The author finds a tasteless element in all forms of Diaspora; these are habitancy who live face their 'natal (or imagined natal) territories' (ix) and identify that their original homelands are reflected deeply in the languages they speak, religion they adopt, and cultures they produce. Each of the categories of Diasporas underline a single cause of migration usually linked with single groups of people. So for example, the Africans through their contact of slavery have been noted to be victims of extremely aggressive transmigrational policies. (Cohen)
Though in the age of technological advancement which has made the traveling easier and the distance shorter so the term Diaspora has lost its original connotation, yet simultaneously it has also emerged in an additional one form healthier than the former. At first, it is implicated with human beings attached to the homelands. Their sense of yearning for the homeland, a lively attachment to its traditions, religions and languages give birth to diasporic literature which is primarily implicated with the individual's or community's attachment to the homeland. The migrant arrives 'unstuck from more than land' (Rushdie). He runs from pillar to post crossing the boundries of time, memory and History carrying 'bundles and boxes' always with them with the vision and dreams of returning homeland as and when likes and finds fit to return. Although, it is an axiomatic truth that his dreams are futile and it wouldn't be potential to return to the homeland is 'metaphorical' (Hall). The longing for the homeland is countered by the desire to belong to the new home, so the migrant remains a vertebrate of the edge, 'the peripheral man' (Rushdie). Agreeing to Naipaul the Indians are well aware that their journey to Trinidad 'had been final' (Andse Dentseh,) but these tensions and throes remain a recurring theme in the Diasporic Literature.


1.Forced 2.Voluntary

Indian Diaspora can be classified into two kinds:

1. Forced Migration to Africa, Fiji or the Caribbean on inventory of slavery or indentured labour in the 18th or 19th century.

2.Voluntary Migration to U.S.A., U.K., Germany, France or other European countries for the sake of pro or academic purposes.

According to Amitava Ghose-'the Indian Diaspora is one of the most important demographic dislocation of contemporary Times'(Ghosh,) and each day is growing and assuming the form of representative of a valuable force in global culture. If we take the Markand Paranjpe, we will find two obvious phases of Diaspora, these are called the visitor Diaspora and Settler Diaspora much similar to Maxwell's 'Invader' and 'Settler' Colonialist.

The first Diaspora consisted of dispriveledged and subaltern classes forced alienation was a one way ticket to a distant diasporic settlement. As, in the days of yore, the return to Homeland was next to impossible due to lack of permissible means of transportation, economic deficiency, and vast distances so the corporal distance became a psychological alienation, and the homeland became the sacred icon in the diasporic imagination of the authors also.

But the second Diaspora was the ensue of man's choice and inclination towards the material gains, pro and company interests. It is particularly the representation of privilege and passage to contemporary advanced technology and communication. Here, no dearth of money or means is descriptive rather economic and life style advantages are facilitated by the multiple visas and frequent flyer utilities. Therefore, Vijay Mishra is exact when he finds V S Naipaul as the founding father of old diaspora but it is also not wrong to see Salman Rushdie as the representative of contemporary (second) Diaspora V S Naipaul remarkably portrays the crusade for the roots in his 'A House for Mr. Biswas:

"to have lived without even attempting to lay claim to one's measure of the earth; to have lived and died as one has been born, unnecessary and accommodated.(Naipaul,14) similarly Mohan Biswas's peregrination over the next 35 years, he was to be a wanderer with no place to call his own'(ibid. 40)

In the same manner, Rushdie's Midnight Children and Shame are the novels of leave taking... From the country of his birth (India) and from that second country (Pakistan) where he tried, half-heartedly to determine and couldn't." (Aizaz Ahmad, 135)

Here the critique of Paranjape generates the deliberate upon of competitive forms of writing: Diaspora or domiciled -those who stayed back home and importantly a competitive space for the right to create the homeland, so he points out the possibility of harm by 'usurping the space which native self- representations are striving to find in the International Literary store place and that they may 'contribute to the Colonization of the Indian psyche by pondering to Western tastes which prefer to see India in a negative light.' The works of various authors like Kuketu Mehta, Amitava Ghosh, Tabish, Khair, Agha Shahid Ali, Sonali Bose, Salman Rushdie confirm a hybridity between diasporic and domiciled consciousness. They are National, not Nationalistic inclusive not parochial, respecting the local while being ecumenical, celebrating human values and Indian pluralism as a vital 'worldliness'. (Ashcraft, 31-56)

The diasporian authors engage in cultural transmission that is equitably exchanged in the manner of translating a map of reality for multiple readerships. Besides, they are qualified with bundles of memories and allege an amalgam of global and national strands that embody real and imagined experience. Suketu Mehta is advocate of idea of home is not a consumable entity. He says:
You cannot go home by eating obvious foods, by replaying its films on your T.V. Screens. At some point you have to live there again."(Mehta, 13)

So his novel Maximum City is the delineation of real lives, habits, cares, customs, traditions, dreams and gloominess of Metro life on the edge, in an act of morphing Mumbai through the unmaking of Bombay. It is also true, therefore, that diasporic writing is full of feelings of alienation, loving for homeland dispersed and dejection, a duplicate identification with original homeland and adopted country, crisis of identity, mythnic memory and the protest against discrimination is the adopted country. An Autonomous space becomes permanent which non- Diasporas fail to fill. M K Gandhi, the first one to perceive the value of syncretic solutions' hence he never asked for a pure homeland for Indians in South Socio-cultural space and so Sudhir Kumar confirms Gandhi as the first practitioner of diasporic hybridity. Gandhi considered all discriminations of high and low, small or great, Hindu or Muslim or Christian or Sikh but found them 'All were alike the children of mum India.'

Diasporic writings are to some extent about the company of looking new Angles to enter reality; the distance, geographical and cultural enables new structures of feeling. The hybridity is subversive. It resists cultural authoritarianism and challenges official truths."(Ahmad Aizaz, In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures; Oup, 1992,p.126) one of the most relevant aspect of diasporic writing is that it forces, interrogates and challenges the authoritative voices of time (History). The Shadow Line of Amitav Ghosh has the impulse when the Indian States were complicit in the programmes after Indira Gandhi's assassination. The author elaborates the truth in the book when he says:

"In India there is a drill linked with civil disturbances, a curfew is declared, paramilitary units are deployed; in greatest cares, the army monarchs to the stricken areas. No city in India is best qualified to achieve this drill than New Delhi, with its high protection apparatus."(Amitava Ghosh, 51)

The writers of Diaspora are the global paradigm shift, since the challenges of Postmodernism to overreaching narratives of power relations to silence the voices of the dispossessed; these marginal voices have gained ascendance and even found a current status of privilege. These shifts suggest:

"That it is from those who have suffered the sentence of history-subjugation, domination, Diaspora, displacement- that we learn our most enduring lessons for living and thinking."(Bhabha, 172)

The novels of Amitav Ghosh especially the hungry tide in which the character Kanai Dutt is cast together "with opening condition with a Cetologist from the Us, Priya Roy studying fresh water Dalphines, The Oracaella Brebirostris. The multiple histories of the Sunderbans became alive when the diaries of Marxist school teacher Nirmal came to light. He withdraws from the romance of political activism and came to determine with his wife Nilima in Lucibari and the relation between them is exemplified in the pragmatism of Nilima:

"You live in a dream world- a haze of poetry

Such passages of the novel points towards the metaphorical distinctions between the centre and margins, made report and itsybitsy histories the well knows gods and the gods of small things. In the novels of Ghosh an attack of unarmed settlers Morich Jhapi, in order to evict them forcively is carried out by gangsters hired by states. They had been "assembling nearby the island... They burnt the settlers, hearts, they sank their boats, they lay waste their fields."(ibid)

Similarly there are a whole of novels by South Asian and British Writers on the theme of partition a blatant reality in the global history. Partition was the most traumatic contact of department of hearts and communities. Similarly, Ice Candy Man comprises 32 chapters and provides a peep into the cataclysmic events in turmoil on the sub continent while partition, the spread of social riots between the Hindu and Sikhs on the one side and the Muslim on the other. The Muslims were attached at a community Pirpindo and the Hindus were massacred at Lahore. It was partition only that became the cause of the biggest bloodshed and brutal holocaust in annals of mankind. Lenny on eight years child narrates the chain of events on the basis of her memory. How she learns from her elders and how she beholds the picture of divided India by her own eyes in the warp and woof of the novel. There is a fine blend of longing and belonging of multiplicity of perspectives and pointed nostalgia of mirth and sadness and of Sufism and Bhakti is epitomized in the work of Aga Shahid Ali. Similarly the novels of Rahi Masoom Raja (in Hindi) relate woeful tale of partition, the foul play of politicians, the devastated form of the nation and its habitancy after partition and longing for the home that has been:

"Jinse hum choot gaye Aab vo jahan kaise hai
Shakh-e-gulkaise hai, khushbu ke mahak kaise hai
Ay saba too to udhar hi se gujarti hai
Pattaron vale vo insane, vo behis dar-o-bam
Vo makee kaise hai, sheeshe ke makan kaise hai.

(Sheeshe Ke Maka Vale ,173)
("To which we hav'een left adrift how are those worlds
How the field of flower is, how the mansion of fragrance is.
O,wind! You do pass from there
How are my foot-prints in that lane
Those stony people, those tedious houses
How are those residents and how are those glass houses.)

Most of the major novels of South Asia are replete with the diasporic consciousness which is nothing but the inspect of the all the happenings of social realities, longings and feeling of belonging. Train To Pakistan, The Dark Dancer, Azadi, Ice Candy Man, A Bend In The Ganges, Twice Born, Midnight's Children, Sunlight on A Broken Column, Twice Dead, The Rope and Ashes and Petals all these novels abound in the same tragic tale of woe and strife from distinct angles. Most of the fictions of South Asian Countries are written in the background of post- colonial times and the same South Asian countries were under the colonial rules of the English. After a long battle of independence when those countries were liberated, other bolt from the blue of partition happened. This theme became whys and wherefores of the most of South Asian novels and the popularity of it will prognosticate its golden future.


1.(Cohen Robin, Global Diasporas- An Introduction. London: Uc L Press, 1997)
2.Rushdie: Picador, Rupa, 1983.
3.Safren Willam cited in Satendra Nandan: 'Diasporic Consciousness' Interrogative Post-Colonial: Column Theory, Text and Context, Editors: Harish Trivedi and Meenakshi Mukherjee; Indian create of advanced Studies 1996, p.53)
4.Stuart Hall, 'Cultural Identity and Diaspora in Patric White and Laura Christmas, eds, Colonial Discourses and Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader, New York: Columbia University Press, 1994,p.401)
5.(Rushdie: Shame Picader, Rupa, 1983, p.283).
6.(An Area of Darkness London: Andse Dentseh, 1964,p. 31)
7.(Ghosh, Amitava : 'The Diaspora in Indian Culture' in The Imam and The Indian Ravi Dayal and Permanent Books, Delhi : 2002,p.243)
8.(Naipaul, V S, A House for Mr. Biswas Penguin, 1969,p.14)
9.Aizaz Ahmad 'In Theory: Classes Nations, Literatures, O.U.P.1992, and p.135)
10.(Ashcraft. Bill. And Pal Ahluwalia, Edward Said: The Paradox of Identity Routledge,London & New York 1999,p.31-56 )
11.(Mehta, Suketu, Maximum City Viking, Penguin, 2004, p. 13)
12.(Amitava Ghosh, The Ghost of Mrs. Gandhi in The Imam and The Indian , Ravi Dayal, New Delhi, 2002,p.51
13.(Bhabha, Homi, The Location of Culture, Lodon, 1994,)
14.(Ghosh, Amitav,The Hungry Tide Delhi:Ravi Dayal Pub.2004)
15.Dr. Rahi Masoom Raza, Sheeshe Ke Maka Vale. Ed. Kunvar Pal Singh, Delhi: Vani Pub.2001,)

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Newborn Baby Care - How to Take Care of Newborn Baby

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Giving birth to a child is sometimes genuinely fabulous and it is safe when the baby is in its mother's womb. From the instant the baby emerges from the cocoon, you need to pay extra attention and there is fullness of it in newborn baby care about "how to take care of newborn baby". Know well what will be the newborn baby needs, except for the love that you offer. You need a good knowledge in taking care of the baby connected with food, sleep and skin. It's sometimes excruciating that you can't deal with it to your wishes since the skin, eyes, bottom and other features are so delicate. There are some coarse problems with skin conditions like baby gerbils, baby acne, cradle caps and heat rash with sunburn coarse with newborns of any country.

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Baby skin care: Skin care is the prominent factor in spite of its adaptability to the new environment. Skin is so red that it offers irritation and infection to every touch. So, it's best to wash cloths with extra detergents. Baby skin loses moisture swiftly and it needs time to suck in and reserve moisture to its need. So, holding your child with cold or warm perfume baths daily is not suggestive but may be on alternative days suiting other conditions. New born baby care is so polite that it needs extra treatment. It's best for protecting the baby from bacterial infection by using homemade baby wipes and diaper to cleaning your slight ones.

Umbilical cord: Until and after the falling down, the area around the umbilical cord should be kept clean with antiseptic soft cotton with alcohol application.

Head care: Head is so delicate with soft hair. To keep clean use only baby skin care natural shampoo perhaps the same product. The pulpy scalp is a protected area against rough handling when padding anything around it.

Heat rash and sunburn: Skin learns to accommodate with new surrounding and so nothing is there to worry. Whatsoever, holding off the baby from direct sunlight for a long time should be avoided as a quantum of infant care against heat effects. Protecting the baby appropriately perhaps with cheap baby clothing suiting to the weather is wise of the mother.

Baby acne and cradle caps: Baby acne may have its effect for the first two or three months but no need to treat unless infected. It is protected with homely and quarterly baby baths with natural care therapy. Cradle caps should be handled with soft brush to clean using some herbal moisturizer. It's best to use natural baby products avoiding artificial products like talcum powder complimented by organic skin care treatments to avoid dry skin.

Newborn baby care is not so easy to all. It is a skill with the parents especially the mom to know how to take care of newborn baby.

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Native American Grants

Do you know about - Native American Grants

There are an abundant estimate of Native American grants ready for registered American Indian tribal members and Alaskan and Hawaiian natives. There are Native American grants for education, housing, caring for elderly tribal members, cultural renewal, environmental protection, and tribal economic development. And that's just the tip of the ice burg! However, just because funds are ready in all of these areas and more, one must not get the impression that the money is indubitably won. Receiving Native American grants is a competitive procedure and that requires persistence and research. My website at the bottom of this record will give you all the data you need to get a hold of one.

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One of the first steps of applying to roughly all Native American grants is proving that you are a registered member of a federally recognized tribe. It is important to get this underway as soon as possible. To determine if you are eligible for tribal membership you should sense your ancestral tribe. individual tribes determine tribal membership. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (Bia) Tribal Leaders Directory lists all federally recognized tribes, as well as sense data for local tribal leaders and Bia offices. Other avenues for tracing your Native American inheritance consist of searching home records, using internet quest engines, and checking local and state record retention offices. Talk to your older relatives and try to find birth and death certificates, marriage licenses, diaries, newspaper clippings, etc. Check school, church and county justice building records for data - also look for deeds, wills, land or other property conveyances. You can also write to the Bureau of Vital Statistics for information. another options is employing a pro genealogist to do the research for you for a fee. You can write to the Board of Certification of Genealogists or the connection of pro Genealogists and request their listings of genealogical researchers for hire.

When searching online you'll be astonished at the estimate of grants out there (just use 'Native American Grants' as your key word on my website). For example, the Native American Housing aid and Self-Determination Act of 1966 created a block grant that gives money annually to low-income Native Americans and Alaskan natives to help with housing needs. The money is awarded to tribes and Alaskan villages who in turn administrate the money and distribute it in the way that best fits the needs of their individual community. The U.S. Group of Housing and Urban development (Hud) also has home ownership and housing restoration opportunities ready specifically for Native Americans.

One challenging reserved supply is the Seva Foundation, which awards grant money everywhere between 0-,000, for grass roots, native habitancy initiated programs which may be overlooked by the larger foundations. Seva awards ,000 a year in small grants to urban and rural communities in the United States. Because of Seva's strong confidence in the significance of self-reliance and self-determination only Native led and initiated projects are accepted. The attractiveness of these grants is that they allow for a lot of creativity and originality.

Another great reserved supply is CodeTalk, which is a federal, interagency, Native American website designed specifically to deliver electronic data from government agencies and other organizations to Native American communities.

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